Multipurpose light vehicles trace their origins from World War II, when numerous warring armies have used a variety of light-duty vehicles. It was the first major “mechanical” war with crucial relying on a variety of vehicles, from motorcycles to the heavy trucks. Each army had its own version of a small car. Sometimes it’s a case of ordinary civilian cars or trucks minimally adapted wartime use. Among the pioneers in the development of lightweight military vehicle was the German army, which in the thirties of the last century in the development of modern mechanized army launched many programs. Most popular German army light vehicle during this period was undoubtedly VW Kübel. It was produced in more than 50 000 copies.
Among the many vehicles are still devotes one legend, the American Jeep, since 1940th produced in excess of 600 000 copies. Supplied also the allied forces and has been successfully used on all fronts. He played a major role in the development of the first postwar generation light tactical multipurpose vehicles worldwide. History repeated itself after forty years ago when another American design mapped out the future direction of development of light tactical vehicles.
The U.S. Army 1979th issued specifications for a new generation of vehicles that will replace all former light vehicles. The concept of a new vehicle called the HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle). American company AM General during 1980th presented its proposal for a modern light vehicles for military future in response to this specification. It is a technologically advanced vehicle with good opportunities to master difficult terrain. Was designed to perform a variety of tasks, from logistics to combat. The basic chassis is designed so that it can be modified in a number of specialized versions. Powered by a diesel engine and has an automatic transmission to facilitate the driving and reduce driver fatigue.
Start of production
In March, 1983. Army has chosen the solution of AM General (the suggestions offered and company Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental) and started production of 2334 HMMWV vehicles. It’s awkward and difficult to spell name. In official military nomenclature it’s replaced by nothing more attractive name M998. So it became globally popular for its sympathetic nickname Humvee.
Humvee was sentenced to instant success. Good and effective vehicle quickly gained the undivided sympathy of those who are most important in the entire story – a soldier. Since the start of the 1983rd it was made around 200 000 vehicles, and still producing new vehicles for many armies around the world. When the soldiers began to meet with a new vehicle and were somewhat surprised by his appearance and they called it “a Jeep on steroids.” This statement Humvee earned primarily by its “muscular” look, which was a clear example of design in which functionality determines the shape, not the other way around.
Appearance of Humvee is specific, and at the time when it appeared and began to go into operational use U.S. military (mid 80-ies of the last century) military vehicles on the market there was nothing like that. While most of these vehicles was The Box, tall, flat surfaces and dimensions similar civilian vehicles, Humvee was offered a different approach. Designers have opted for a broad and low vehicle with four large wheels placed in corners with small bodywork overhangs. The vehicle looks like it was “taped” to the ground. Retained the classic concept car with an engine in the front, space for the crew in the middle and rear of the leisure that adapts to a variety of tasks.
Since the introduction of the Humvee became popular among soldiers, and because of its versatility has taken a lot of tasks in the armed forces. Versions vehicles range from the simple trucks, transporters, patrol vehicles to specialized for particular tasks. So the Humvee used as a chassis for PVO systems, such vehicle is equipped with anti-tank missiles, the vehicle for the link, an ambulance, a vehicle for electronic warfare, etc.
Except in the U.S. Army, Humvee soon found a place for myself and many other allied armies. After the 1991 Gulf War. it became clear that the Humvee is excellent vehicle, with a well-balanced ratio of usability and capabilities. Gulf war made Humvee globally popular and approached designers around the world as a new model of “ideal” light tactical MPV. A number of manufacturers around the world have seized on developing their own vehicles inspired Humvees. Some companies have decided to play it safe and acceded to only certain modifications already proven vehicles. Such an approach shows good Mowag Swiss company that is based on a model developed by the U.S. own modification under the name Eagle. Mowag of the American company AM General procures basic parts and components, some components are in turn developed yourself. Eagle is made in three series, each was more advanced and better than the previous one. This is a custom armored vehicle reconnaissance, surveillance, patrols and other tasks. Proved to be a very good choice for a peacekeeping mission.
After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous companies in the East ran into difficulties. Orders are drastically reduced, traditional authorities have fallen into long-term financial difficulties that were quickly transferred to producers.
Ukrainian company from Kharkov Morozov has vast experience in designing tanks, was one of the leading manufacturers of tanks in the former Soviet Union. Orders of the former Soviet Army have ensured the job and the means to develop new models. Disintegration of the Soviet Union disappeared secure orders and the company turned to developing new products and finding new markets.
As for new products, the company has after market research concluded that light multipurpose vehicles can be easiest to sell, because for them, the government and the majority of demand. Many armies have now engaged in various peacekeeping missions around the world. The company has concluded that there is a need for a modern multi-purpose vehicle concept and reasonable price.
His experience, over 70 years producing various heavy military vehicles, decided to put into a simple and interesting solution to the market. One of the important elements in the development of the vehicle is its multi-functionality and the ability to perform various tasks.
In developing fructify, as they called it, apparently, as the philosophy of design and appearance played a major role and a Humvee. The result is an interesting vehicle that is offered in two versions, basic and armored. Such an approach is now very fashionable and nearly every tactical vehicle can easily be bought in non armored and armored version. The difference is only in approach. Some manufacturers have decided on special armor kits, which are set to basic, unarmored vehicle. Others are opting for the development of special armored versions based on the basic vehicle, and the result can be the vehicle that the external appearance differs from the basic model. However, this difference was only out because they are the basic structural elements and subsystems are identical. It is precisely for such an approach decided Ukrainian company.
Fundamental vehicle of Dozor Dozor-A. Multipurpose tactical vehicle field with good opportunities to master difficult terrain. When constructing and designing vehicles specifically to take account of efficiency and multifunctionality. Provided for various types of missions, from the transport of people and goods to the towing trailers.
In designing and constructing engineers have tried, and failed, to get a vehicle with a large range of capacity. Due to the application of all-wheel drive, obtained a good terrain mobility. Good mobility and easily overcome small obstacles contribute to the large wheels.
Dozor-A is suitable for use in various types of units, from infantry units, rapid intervention forces, special forces, and to logistic units. Of course, it is possible to turn in a vehicle-mount various types of combat systems. Because civil seems suitable for use in peacekeeping missions, and is equipped with all the necessary equipment to safely drive in civilian traffic. Of course, except for the military is also suitable for other users who need an effective specialized vehicle. Among these are certainly among firefighters, civil defense and protection services, and rescue and various commercial companies that operate in inaccessible areas without good road infrastructure.
The company says that the vehicle can be converted to various versions, such as the police and military police, a vehicle for providing technical and logistical support, an ambulance, a vehicle to transport people, trail patrol vehicle, truck.
Of course, these are just variations developed by the company, it is possible to customize the vehicle and other duties, if the need arises.
Vehicle weight is 3500 kg, and it is the maximum capacity up to 2 tons. The vehicle has a standard configuration for this type of vehicle. The motor is forward, in the midst of a crew that comes in and out through four side doors. At the end of the vehicle’s cargo area that can be covered with a tarpaulin. In this space can accommodate people, but it is primarily intended for the transport of cargo or installation of special equipment, depending on the version of the vehicle. The space crew has room for five people, four seats are classic, and the fifth set and fold in the last row on the center console. Applied to a solution that used almost all manufacturers of such vehicles. Specifically, the central ridge that runs through the shaft that transfers power to the back wheels is usually a problem when designing the interior of the vehicle because it takes up space. For passenger cars it was done so that the passenger compartment is usually placed above the central ridge and above the flooring. However, in military vehicles is changed using the seat and placed around the central ridge, directly on the floor, in order to save on the amount of vehicle. The negative consequence of this solution is that the one who sits on the seat, the switch does not have the level of comfort as they do in other seats, center console because it does not allow for easy landing legs on the floor. In fact, sitting in the seat recalls the seating position of the motor or scooter. The cargo space can accommodate six more so that the vehicle can transport a total of 11 people.
Dozor A-5200 is a long, wide and tall 2400 2030 (if measured height then tarpaulins 2335) millimeters. Distance body to the ground is 400 mm. A vehicle driven diesel engine in three variants. Two four-cylinder engines, power 90 (122KS) and 100 kW (136KS) while the third šestcilindrični power 145 kW or 197 hp. All the engines are turbo aftercooler with compressed air. Četverocilindriči models force transmitted through the mechanical and šestcilindrični via automatic transmissions. The vehicle has a top speed of 120 km / h, and with a full tank of fuel can walk 1000 km. From accessories Dozor-A may have a roof rack on the gun, and can be fitted with a satellite navigation system SN-3003 Basalt, AC power 4 kW, infrared device for night driving, the radio Self recovery winch and winch.
Armored vehicles Dozor version differs from the basic version and it is evident at first glance. So, with the simple letters A and B precisely know which version of the word. Dozor-B is actually an armored personnel carrier to transport soldiers while protected from the effects of NBC weapons and shooting equipment. Vehicle to transport people, due to the favorable configuration and good load capacity can be used as an armored truck or vehicle for evacuation. It is suitable as a reconnaissance vehicle for NBC reconnaissance vehicle, command vehicle or ambulance.
Because of the use of armor Dozor-B is still harder than the Dozor-A. Combat weight Dozor-B is 6300 kg, length and width are the same as the A version, while the car is slightly longer, 2640 mm, and the machine gun on the roof. The machine gun is NSBT-12.7 on the podium with a remote control. By direction covers all 360 stupjneva and in elevation from – 3 to +68 degrees. The machine gun has a tank with 450 bullets.
Choice of powertrain is the same as in version A, and the maximum speed is between 90-105 km / h, depending on the engine. All other equipment is identical to that of the A version. The only important difference is that Dozor-B has NBC protection system, which makes it a serious vehicle capable of a wider range of possible tasks. Appearance variations Dozor-B differs primarily because of the new armored body with sloping sides. Then, some people movers was extended to the last load of the vehicle so that you have a large internal volume which can accommodate 11 soldiers. The crew consists of three members, and the assault troops 8.
Members assault sat in the rear of the vehicle, the six-seater with sides slanting to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. This solution is used im likely to obtain more space, and that the soldiers do not hit your legs while in a vehicle. Another two members of the assault seated on chairs facing in the direction of travel, the seat behind the driver and passenger.
Directly behind the driver’s seat and front passenger, in the middle of the vehicle, set the seat for the third member of the crew. He sits less comfortably because the front and under the seat is no place for the feet. The problem is solved by the central ridge traditionally increased by height so obtained is sufficient space for the passenger compartment that is set above the axle to transmit power to the back wheels.
The last part of the vehicle is further increased to ensure as much of the interior and pleasant stay planted. Dozor-B has three doors, two side for the driver and front passenger, and the third at the rear. Through the door into the vehicle enters and comes out assault of 8 soldiers.
Tactical vehicles Dozor show all the characteristics of modern lightweight multipurpose vehicles. With modern conception goes great degree of utilization which is most clearly seen in the Simple customization for a variety of tasks. Selection option izmđeu standard and screened versions provide potential users of power fitting in basically the same vehicle that can perform a variety of tasks. Such an approach facilitates logistical support during its working life, all vehicles because it has many of the same parts. Their use and maintain nearly identical and the training of troops simplified and accelerated.
If we ask that Dozor target market, the answer is probably that it is a less-developed countries, the former Soviet Union, and the markets of Africa and Asia. While developed countries are working alone or similar vehicles or buy them from famous Western manufacturers, many less developed countries do not have the money for such an approach. Western manufacturers offer cutting-edge products, but at high prices that are unavailable in many countries. Because the eastern producers, such as the Ukrainian Morozov, Google hopes to offer conceptually modern vehicles that are cheaper still stimulate the interest of those who need such a vehicle but do not have enough money to buy them from famous Western manufacturers.
In this case, cheaper does not mean less quality, as is the experience to date with vehicles eastern manufacturers showed. Specifically, they lower the price of simpler structure, easier methods of manufacturing vehicles with less advanced electronics to manage and control, lower labor costs and making the rough and finish. The former are products of the East showed robust and highly reusable. You may not offer superior comfort and ergonomics as well as Western rivals, but in any case able to do the job for which they were intended. And there are many customers who appreciate just such properties.
|crew||5 +6||3 +8|
|drive||4 × 4||4 × 4|
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