Multipurpose light vehicles trace their origins from World War II, when numerous warring armies have used a variety of light-duty vehicles. It was the first major “mechanical” war with crucial relying on a variety of vehicles, from motorcycles to the heavy trucks. Each army had its own version of a small car. Sometimes it’s a case of ordinary civilian cars or trucks minimally adapted wartime use. Among the pioneers in the development of lightweight military vehicle was the German army, which in the thirties of the last century in the development of modern mechanized army launched many programs. Most popular German army light vehicle during this period was undoubtedly VW Kübel. It was produced in more than 50 000 copies.
Among the many vehicles are still devotes one legend, the American Jeep, since 1940th produced in excess of 600 000 copies. Supplied also the allied forces and has been successfully used on all fronts. He played a major role in the development of the first postwar generation light tactical multipurpose vehicles worldwide. History repeated itself after forty years ago when another American design mapped out the future direction of development of light tactical vehicles.
The U.S. Army 1979th issued specifications for a new generation of vehicles that will replace all former light vehicles. The concept of a new vehicle called the HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle). American company AM General during 1980th presented its proposal for a modern light vehicles for military future in response to this specification. It is a technologically advanced vehicle with good opportunities to master difficult terrain. Was designed to perform a variety of tasks, from logistics to combat. The basic chassis is designed so that it can be modified in a number of specialized versions. Powered by a diesel engine and has an automatic transmission to facilitate the driving and reduce driver fatigue.
Start of production
In March, 1983. Army has chosen the solution of AM General (the suggestions offered and company Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental) and started production of 2334 HMMWV vehicles. It’s awkward and difficult to spell name. In official military nomenclature it’s replaced by nothing more attractive name M998. So it became globally popular for its sympathetic nickname Humvee.
Humvee was sentenced to instant success. Good and effective vehicle quickly gained the undivided sympathy of those who are most important in the entire story – a soldier. Since the start of the 1983rd it was made around 200 000 vehicles, and still producing new vehicles for many armies around the world. When the soldiers began to meet with a new vehicle and were somewhat surprised by his appearance and they called it “a Jeep on steroids.” This statement Humvee earned primarily by its “muscular” look, which was a clear example of design in which functionality determines the shape, not the other way around.
Appearance of Humvee is specific, and at the time when it appeared and began to go into operational use U.S. military (mid 80-ies of the last century) military vehicles on the market there was nothing like that. While most of these vehicles was The Box, tall, flat surfaces and dimensions similar civilian vehicles, Humvee was offered a different approach. Designers have opted for a broad and low vehicle with four large wheels placed in corners with small bodywork overhangs. The vehicle looks like it was “taped” to the ground. Retained the classic concept car with an engine in the front, space for the crew in the middle and rear of the leisure that adapts to a variety of tasks.
Since the introduction of the Humvee became popular among soldiers, and because of its versatility has taken a lot of tasks in the armed forces. Versions vehicles range from the simple trucks, transporters, patrol vehicles to specialized for particular tasks. So the Humvee used as a chassis for PVO systems, such vehicle is equipped with anti-tank missiles, the vehicle for the link, an ambulance, a vehicle for electronic warfare, etc.
Except in the U.S. Army, Humvee soon found a place for myself and many other allied armies. After the 1991 Gulf War. it became clear that the Humvee is excellent vehicle, with a well-balanced ratio of usability and capabilities. Gulf war made Humvee globally popular and approached designers around the world as a new model of “ideal” light tactical MPV. A number of manufacturers around the world have seized on developing their own vehicles inspired Humvees. Some companies have decided to play it safe and acceded to only certain modifications already proven vehicles. Such an approach shows good Mowag Swiss company that is based on a model developed by the U.S. own modification under the name Eagle. Mowag of the American company AM General procures basic parts and components, some components are in turn developed yourself. Eagle is made in three series, each was more advanced and better than the previous one. This is a custom armored vehicle reconnaissance, surveillance, patrols and other tasks. Proved to be a very good choice for a peacekeeping mission.
After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous companies in the East ran into difficulties. Orders are drastically reduced, traditional authorities have fallen into long-term financial difficulties that were quickly transferred to producers.
Ukrainian company from Kharkov Morozov has vast experience in designing tanks, was one of the leading manufacturers of tanks in the former Soviet Union. Orders of the former Soviet Army have ensured the job and the means to develop new models. Disintegration of the Soviet Union disappeared secure orders and the company turned to developing new products and finding new markets.
As for new products, the company has after market research concluded that light multipurpose vehicles can be easiest to sell, because for them, the government and the majority of demand. Many armies have now engaged in various peacekeeping missions around the world. The company has concluded that there is a need for a modern multi-purpose vehicle concept and reasonable price.
His experience, over 70 years producing various heavy military vehicles, decided to put into a simple and interesting solution to the market. One of the important elements in the development of the vehicle is its multi-functionality and the ability to perform various tasks.
In developing fructify, as they called it, apparently, as the philosophy of design and appearance played a major role and a Humvee. The result is an interesting vehicle that is offered in two versions, basic and armored. Such an approach is now very fashionable and nearly every tactical vehicle can easily be bought in non armored and armored version. The difference is only in approach. Some manufacturers have decided on special armor kits, which are set to basic, unarmored vehicle. Others are opting for the development of special armored versions based on the basic vehicle, and the result can be the vehicle that the external appearance differs from the basic model. However, this difference was only out because they are the basic structural elements and subsystems are identical. It is precisely for such an approach decided Ukrainian company.
Fundamental vehicle of Dozor Dozor-A. Multipurpose tactical vehicle field with good opportunities to master difficult terrain. When constructing and designing vehicles specifically to take account of efficiency and multifunctionality. Provided for various types of missions, from the transport of people and goods to the towing trailers.
In designing and constructing engineers have tried, and failed, to get a vehicle with a large range of capacity. Due to the application of all-wheel drive, obtained a good terrain mobility. Good mobility and easily overcome small obstacles contribute to the large wheels.
Dozor-A is suitable for use in various types of units, from infantry units, rapid intervention forces, special forces, and to logistic units. Of course, it is possible to turn in a vehicle-mount various types of combat systems. Because civil seems suitable for use in peacekeeping missions, and is equipped with all the necessary equipment to safely drive in civilian traffic. Of course, except for the military is also suitable for other users who need an effective specialized vehicle. Among these are certainly among firefighters, civil defense and protection services, and rescue and various commercial companies that operate in inaccessible areas without good road infrastructure.
The company says that the vehicle can be converted to various versions, such as the police and military police, a vehicle for providing technical and logistical support, an ambulance, a vehicle to transport people, trail patrol vehicle, truck.
Of course, these are just variations developed by the company, it is possible to customize the vehicle and other duties, if the need arises.
Vehicle weight is 3500 kg, and it is the maximum capacity up to 2 tons. The vehicle has a standard configuration for this type of vehicle. The motor is forward, in the midst of a crew that comes in and out through four side doors. At the end of the vehicle’s cargo area that can be covered with a tarpaulin. In this space can accommodate people, but it is primarily intended for the transport of cargo or installation of special equipment, depending on the version of the vehicle. The space crew has room for five people, four seats are classic, and the fifth set and fold in the last row on the center console. Applied to a solution that used almost all manufacturers of such vehicles. Specifically, the central ridge that runs through the shaft that transfers power to the back wheels is usually a problem when designing the interior of the vehicle because it takes up space. For passenger cars it was done so that the passenger compartment is usually placed above the central ridge and above the flooring. However, in military vehicles is changed using the seat and placed around the central ridge, directly on the floor, in order to save on the amount of vehicle. The negative consequence of this solution is that the one who sits on the seat, the switch does not have the level of comfort as they do in other seats, center console because it does not allow for easy landing legs on the floor. In fact, sitting in the seat recalls the seating position of the motor or scooter. The cargo space can accommodate six more so that the vehicle can transport a total of 11 people.
Dozor A-5200 is a long, wide and tall 2400 2030 (if measured height then tarpaulins 2335) millimeters. Distance body to the ground is 400 mm. A vehicle driven diesel engine in three variants. Two four-cylinder engines, power 90 (122KS) and 100 kW (136KS) while the third šestcilindrični power 145 kW or 197 hp. All the engines are turbo aftercooler with compressed air. Četverocilindriči models force transmitted through the mechanical and šestcilindrični via automatic transmissions. The vehicle has a top speed of 120 km / h, and with a full tank of fuel can walk 1000 km. From accessories Dozor-A may have a roof rack on the gun, and can be fitted with a satellite navigation system SN-3003 Basalt, AC power 4 kW, infrared device for night driving, the radio Self recovery winch and winch.
Armored vehicles Dozor version differs from the basic version and it is evident at first glance. So, with the simple letters A and B precisely know which version of the word. Dozor-B is actually an armored personnel carrier to transport soldiers while protected from the effects of NBC weapons and shooting equipment. Vehicle to transport people, due to the favorable configuration and good load capacity can be used as an armored truck or vehicle for evacuation. It is suitable as a reconnaissance vehicle for NBC reconnaissance vehicle, command vehicle or ambulance.
Because of the use of armor Dozor-B is still harder than the Dozor-A. Combat weight Dozor-B is 6300 kg, length and width are the same as the A version, while the car is slightly longer, 2640 mm, and the machine gun on the roof. The machine gun is NSBT-12.7 on the podium with a remote control. By direction covers all 360 stupjneva and in elevation from – 3 to +68 degrees. The machine gun has a tank with 450 bullets.
Choice of powertrain is the same as in version A, and the maximum speed is between 90-105 km / h, depending on the engine. All other equipment is identical to that of the A version. The only important difference is that Dozor-B has NBC protection system, which makes it a serious vehicle capable of a wider range of possible tasks. Appearance variations Dozor-B differs primarily because of the new armored body with sloping sides. Then, some people movers was extended to the last load of the vehicle so that you have a large internal volume which can accommodate 11 soldiers. The crew consists of three members, and the assault troops 8.
Members assault sat in the rear of the vehicle, the six-seater with sides slanting to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. This solution is used im likely to obtain more space, and that the soldiers do not hit your legs while in a vehicle. Another two members of the assault seated on chairs facing in the direction of travel, the seat behind the driver and passenger.
Directly behind the driver’s seat and front passenger, in the middle of the vehicle, set the seat for the third member of the crew. He sits less comfortably because the front and under the seat is no place for the feet. The problem is solved by the central ridge traditionally increased by height so obtained is sufficient space for the passenger compartment that is set above the axle to transmit power to the back wheels.
The last part of the vehicle is further increased to ensure as much of the interior and pleasant stay planted. Dozor-B has three doors, two side for the driver and front passenger, and the third at the rear. Through the door into the vehicle enters and comes out assault of 8 soldiers.
Tactical vehicles Dozor show all the characteristics of modern lightweight multipurpose vehicles. With modern conception goes great degree of utilization which is most clearly seen in the Simple customization for a variety of tasks. Selection option izmđeu standard and screened versions provide potential users of power fitting in basically the same vehicle that can perform a variety of tasks. Such an approach facilitates logistical support during its working life, all vehicles because it has many of the same parts. Their use and maintain nearly identical and the training of troops simplified and accelerated.
If we ask that Dozor target market, the answer is probably that it is a less-developed countries, the former Soviet Union, and the markets of Africa and Asia. While developed countries are working alone or similar vehicles or buy them from famous Western manufacturers, many less developed countries do not have the money for such an approach. Western manufacturers offer cutting-edge products, but at high prices that are unavailable in many countries. Because the eastern producers, such as the Ukrainian Morozov, Google hopes to offer conceptually modern vehicles that are cheaper still stimulate the interest of those who need such a vehicle but do not have enough money to buy them from famous Western manufacturers.
In this case, cheaper does not mean less quality, as is the experience to date with vehicles eastern manufacturers showed. Specifically, they lower the price of simpler structure, easier methods of manufacturing vehicles with less advanced electronics to manage and control, lower labor costs and making the rough and finish. The former are products of the East showed robust and highly reusable. You may not offer superior comfort and ergonomics as well as Western rivals, but in any case able to do the job for which they were intended. And there are many customers who appreciate just such properties.
|crew||5 +6||3 +8|
|drive||4 × 4||4 × 4|
Patria AMV 8 × 8
Patria AMV 8 × 8 armored multipurpose wheeled vehicle produced by the Finnish company Patria Land & Armament Oy, with the cooperation of the manufacturing and other companies to help complete the transfer of technology are applied newest methods and technologies. The design allows the vehicle to use the maximum payload capacity, and the simultaneous integration of armor protection, mounting heavy weapons and without jeopardizing or compromising mobility Patria AMV armored vehicles. The basic advantage of Patria AMV 8 × 8 is its modular design, its installation of wide range of equipment for various missions on the main base vehicle.
Prototype armored vehicle Patria AMV 8 × 8’s in 2001. year, and only two years later, the first test specimens were supplied for the Finnish Defence Forces, after having successfully completed testing, began mass production in 2004.year. There have been quite a few different versions of APCs and BOV’s (infantry fighting vehicle), as well as versions of communications vehicles, ambulances, and Patria armored vehicles for fire support from mortars and large-caliber artillery systems. Patria AMV has protection from infantry and antitank mines containing up to 10 kilograms of TNT explosives.
Basic characteristics of armored vehicle Patria AMV 8 × 8
Patria AMV 8 × 8 harder to between 16 and 24 tons, depending on the version, while the version of the Patria AMV 6 × 6 weighs about 12 tons. Patria AMV 8 × 8 can carry a total of 10 tons, and the total free space, and the volume of the same amount to about 13 m 3. Patria AMV Version 6 × 6 has similar equipment as the version 8 × 8, but showed weaker spoobnosti field.
Mobility armored vehicle Patria AMV 8 × 8
Patria AMV 8 × 8 has a diesel engine Scania DI 12 that can develop 490 hp (360 kW) with maximum torque of 1974 Nm. Power is transferred to all 8 wheels. AMV is constructed so that the EU can install it and some other other diesel engine manufacturers maximum power 550 hp and maximum torque 2090 Nm.
Power is transmitted through an automatic transmission ZF Ecomat 7HP902 which has 7 degrees transfer to move forward and one to move back. Dimensions are 14:00 R20 tires. Tires are equipped with “run-flat” a device by which the vehicle can continue to run even though the tire is affected. Along with “run-flat” device provides good terrain features a central tire inflation system (CTIS), which can increase or decrease the pressure in each tire, depending on the terrain. Strut independent, hydro-pneumatic and allows changing range vehicle surfaces. Top speed Patria AMV armored vehicles is over 100 km / h and a range on a single tank of fuel is about 800 km. Patria AMV can overcome the rise front rise of 60% and lateral tilt of 30%.
AMV can ride to cross water obstacles 1.5 meters deep and has an amphibious capability. At the rear of the vehicle were set two propellers. To navigate AMV could be lighter than 18 tonnes. Cruising speed of 8-10 km / h.
Armor armored vehicle Patria AMV 8 × 8
Protecting the Patria AMV vehicle is in the form of welded steel plates that make up the bulk of the armor. Patria AMV is based on this proof pedestrians armament 7.62 mm on any part of the vehicle. There are easy ways to upgrade the armor with better armor for better protection against mines. Basic protection AMV by the armor composed of welded steel plates. Patria AMV 8 × 8 can withstand a mine blast filling up to 10 kg of TNT explosives ..
Patria AMV can be armed with various weapons. Polish armed Rosomak LDCs is 30 mm cannon and machine gun 7.62 m One of perhaps the most effective weapon is the one with the AMOS mortar system. The system consists of two cannon caliber 120 mm can not fire simultaneously. The maximum rate of fire of 26 rounds per minute. The same systems are used on ships and other armored vozilima.Patria NEMO is armed turret mounting a 120 mm that weighs only 1550 kg. It is made to dispatch, to lighter armored vehicles.
At Patria AMV can be installed remotely operated and the Norwegian company Kongsberg armed cells. Machine gun turret and are remotely operated. Gunner who operated inside the vehicle in front of you has a joystick and a monitor.Such weapons proved very effective in urban areas and the urban battlefield, because none of the crew is not exposed to enemy fire. On other vehicles, on which the machine gun was mounted only, one of the crew was supposed to come out in order to manage the machine gun. In this way, in urban areas were large casualties. Armed cells were first tested by American soldiers in Iraq Stryker armored vehicles, which proved to be a good solution in urban combat and weapons such as the type of vehicle. The same armed cells can also be set to other vehicles such as the Piranha III or Boxer. At the armory station can be mounted machineguns from 5.56-to 12.7 mm, and the anti-tank rocket launchers, 40 mm grenade launcher or a different tube for firing signal and smoke grenades.
Typical basic configuration vehicles:
APC-Q12, 7, armored infantry fighting vehicle with a 12.7 mm machine gun
APC-Q30, an armored infantry fighting vehicle with 30 mm automatic cannon
APC-PA, commanding an armored infantry vehicle
APC-San, an armored ambulance
Log-APC, an armored recovery vehicle and repairs
APC-POB, a vehicle for anti-tank missiles
The green light for the start of series production combat vehicle wheels Boxer (8 × 8) Multi-Role Armoured Vehicle (MRAV) is given at the end of last year. The first customers are German and Dutch army that decided for different versions of Boxer. Boxer is the only armored vehicle that is being developed within the Organisation for Joint Armament Co-operation (OCCAR), which together lead Germany and the Netherlands. The main job holder is a company ARTEC (ARrmoured tecnology), based in Munich. ARTEC founders are the company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (36 percent ownership), Rheinmetall Landsysteme (14 percent) and Stork (50 percent). Each of these companies has the right to produce Boxer in their plants.
ARTEC is responsible for the development, manufacture and sale Boxer MRAV and all versions or other vehicles that may be incurred on its basis. Krauss-Maffei Wegmann is responsible for the production of the German version of the Boxer APC (armored personel carrier – APC), ambulance versions and versions for driver training. Rheinmetall is responsible for the production version of the command (command post vehicle – CPV) and medical and Strok Boxer intended for all the Dutch army, regardless of the version.
German Army currently plans to buy 272 Boxer, labeled Gepanzertes Transport Kraftfahrzeug (GTK). First delivery expected in late 2009. year. Intending to buy three versions: APC (135), CPV (65) and an armored ambulance (72).Ten Boxer APC will subsequently adapt driver training duties. German Boxer will replace part of Rheinmetall Landsysteme Fuchs 1 (6 × 6) vehicles and most M113 armored personnel carriers that are used for special tasks.Thus, a small number of planned Boxer consequence the decision to the German motorized and armored infantry combat vehicle equipment (armored infantry fighting vehicel – AIFV) tracked Puma that will equip remotely controlled turret with gun Mauser 30-mm coaxial machine gun 5.56 mm .
Although the German army in spite of the prevailing trends opted for AIFV tracked by Boxer expected to be the bearer of the most difficult task because of the large capacity and the volume of space, able to adapt to different tasks by changing modules and an excellent tactical mobility. The Dutch Army (Royal Netherlands Army – RNLA) is planning to buy 200 Boxer in five different versions. First delivery is scheduled for early 2011. year. Official RNLA-in label Boxer Pantser Wiel Voertuig (PWV).
The Dutch version of the Boxer armored vehicle
Dutch versions include CPV (ordered 55), medical (58), containers (27), the load / command vehicle (19) and engineering version (41). The Dutch will be replaced and PWV-tracked vehicle YPR-765 currently used in these tasks.The motorized and armored units of the Dutch Army Boxer will be used as vehicles for special support and will work together with IFV’s BAE Systems Hägglunds CV9035 that will soon enter service uprabu. This will produce a boxer in three separate production tapes. One will be in Dutch (in company Stork) and even two in Germany (in companies Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Landsysteme). According to present plans for the delivery of the last German and Dutch Boxer should be no later than the 2016th, unless that state does not increase the order or in the meantime, not before another customer. So far there are no indications on the possible merger (rationalization) of production in one or two bands. Instead, contractors say that they already have signed contracts for the delivery of the system individually in three different drives. So each company individually to produce a basic vehicle, equip, ga equipment (governmetn furnished equipment – GFE), depending on the version, tested and delivered to the customer. Of course, besides basic vehicle, the German and Dutch versions of the same vehicle will get different weapons and communications equipment.
Although Boxer developed German and Dutch funds, during the long process of development and both countries have several times considered the possibility of choosing another IFV in configuration 8 × eighth At the end of the Ministries of Defence of both countries concluded that it was the only available Boxer IFV on wheels that meets their operational requirements, and also offers the possibility of industrial development. Although it is not officially mentioned in the account of the possibility of its sale to foreign buyers that will make the whole project more cost effective.
Despite mass Boxer has excellent mobility off roads during the past few years, Germany and the Netherlands cooperate closely in the development and production of AFV’s. So the Netherlands army modeled on the German Leopard tanks to modernize its second Jointly develop and reconnaissance vehicle on wheels Fennek (4 × 4). Fennek already in serial production and operational use in the armies of both countries, and most of the vehicles in use in Afghanistan. According ARTEC, the Boxer has strategic and tactical mobility, which has not been achieved at the expense of armor. With a maximum combat weight of 33 tons Boxer, according to the manufacturer, provides a high level of protection against a broad spectrum of threats, conventional and unconventional.
The possibility of modernizing armored vehicles Boxer
During the development process and final testing were frequently heard criticism of Boxer’s size and (too) large mass.Producer defends itself by saying that the default load parameters (eight tons) and volume of usable space does not allow for a smaller package. As a further argument cited that and other wheeled combat vehicles in the configuration of 8 × 8, which is the process of development took place along with Boxer, have almost the same size and mass. Ground is influenced by the level of protection required, with the possibility of adding new armor to respond to new threats and conditions of work. The designers had to take into account the possibilities of setting up of active and passive defense systems that are already developed or are still under development.
Besides the three-member crew of the transport version of the conveyor stops and seven soldiers Boxer maximum operating mass depends on the task performed and fixed equipment and the level of protection. Typical operating weight is approximately 31 tons. Built chassis ensures overall payload of 35 tons without modification of management and power transmission. Usable space within Boxer is a 14 m3.
The vehicle is designed for an operating life of 30 years. During operational use should have a high degree of reliability and the probability of survival in combat and low operating costs. As the development Boxer began in late 1999th clients and designers know that the vehicle will be used mostly outside the national territory client, especially in peacekeeping operations. Therefore, the Boxer is designed so that it can be easily maintained in the field conditions, far from home base. To the crew had better working conditions in warm regions of the serial is built air conditioning system, and was used for NBC protection under the principle of creating overpressure.
After intensive testing four prototypes are derived numerous minor changes but the basic design of the vehicle remained netkanut. The amendments, among other things, included the installation of a stronger system for air conditioning, renovated section of infantry assault in order to better adapt to conditions in the peacekeeping operations (installing new doors on the roof and new seats that provide better protection from the effects of the explosion of anti-tank mines and improvised).
In width, height and weight Boxer is adapted transport by rail and future A400M transport aircraft (one car), although the cheapest mode of transport, given the size and weight will be by boat.
Having successfully completed the development of version 8 × 8, the company ARTEC started a private development project version 6 × 6 This the vehicle, which is also modular design as the original Boxer, is designed as a backup option in the event that Germany and the Netherlands at the end of the variants give 8 × 8, but also to cover the increasing number of foreign buyers. Although developed on the basis Boxer 8 × 8 vehicle in the configuration of 6 × 6 designers have developed some new systems that are subsequently incorporated into the production version of the original 8 × eighth
Boxer maximum speed is 103 km / h is 12 Created prototypes Boxer and the same number of changeable modules for different tasks. All are currently involved in intensive testing at various ranges in Germany and the Dutch to gather as much information before creating serial vehicles.
Sometimes the German army had a rule that once a vehicle has received authorization to begin serial production, the more it does not perform the test until the arrival of serial copies in the unit. The British Army had a much different approach because of the continued testing of prototypes, and serial predserijskih copies before the first vehicles came to the end user (the crew in the unit). This rigorous testing called the Reliability Growth Trials (RGT) and their goal was to ensure the elimination of all identified deficiencies before the vehicle went into operational use.
On these experiences and the German Army adopted a new way of developing a Boxer. This will go through three prototypes RGT process which should be concluded by the end of this month. Vehicles during the RGT’s pass 60 650 miles on various terrains in the harshest weather and terrain conditions. Prototypes members manage the German army, but the maintenance is left to the experts ARTEC’s.
After that, he planned to perform Reliability Qualification Test that will involve the completed vehicle conforms to series production. Test simulation predicts 124 combat missions and covers 32 240 kilometers. Boxer is made up of two key elements. One drive module is the same for all versions, and the second mission module that is tailored to specific tasks. So the user gets a vehicle that is in less than one hour can fit another task, provided that it is available the appropriate mission module. Both modules are made of steel using the multilayer-wall structure deflektivnih forms in combination with an additional element of protection, such as an additional active or passive armor.
Drive module consists of driver position on the right front of the vehicle and the engine with the gearbox mounted to the left of the driver. The floor beneath the driver and the vehicle crew compartment made two layers in order to maximize resistance to mines. Free space in the flooring was used to accommodate the diesel fuel. Based on the experience of peacekeeping operations planners have enabled the driver out of the vehicle through its opening or through the crew compartment.
On opening the driver are three periscopes that provide a wide viewing angle. Middle periscope can be replaced by a passive infrared periscope for night driving. Periscopes are used only in the fight because in normal driving the driver can use a large glass that is integrated into the lid and opening the driver that protects it while driving. The driver has a monitor on which the image shows a camera in the rear of the vehicle and which substantially facilitates the movement backwards.
The drive system consists of MTU’s diesel engine power 530 kW 8V199TE20 and Allison HD4070 automatic transmission with seven speeds forward and three reverse. Compact drive system can be replaced for about twenty minutes. Boxer has a constant drive to all eight wheels, the driver directs the vehicle with the front four. Turning radius can be reduced wheel braking only one side. High mobility is achieved using independent suspension on groomed trails and beyond. Increased mobility off roads and secured using a central control system, tire pressure monitoring. In order to ensure mobility and after damage tires were used run flat inserts that provide for the possibility of a further 100 kilometers. Setting up new equipment and its networking system in vehicles enabled the CAN-Bus databus.
The level of protection of armored vehicles Boxer
Unlike most of the armored vehicles on wheels similar purposes Boxter was designed from the start to win protection from weapons that attack the upper side of the vehicle, such as cluster bomblets with a shaped charge warhead.
All key components Boxer underwent intensive testing for resistance to fire small arm, and various anti-tank mines, and on the impact of the explosion of improvised explosive devices. Although yet to start serial production of ARTEC Boxer has long been intensively working on improvements to armor. It has already completed the development of a new armor for the vehicle floor that protects the interior of the EFP (explosively forged penetrators), and the first orders expected to begin its serial production. During the development of reactive armor will increase the protection of vehicles from missiles with cumulative warheads, such as those fired from ubiquitous RPG. If the customer requests a Boxer can be fitted and active self-defense systems which would (at least theoretically) significantly increased the level of protection against a broad spectrum of threats. In case you hit will activate the automatic system for detecting and extinguishing fires in the engine compartment. We consider the possibility of a similar system in the crew compartment.
During testing the prototypes Boxer opremani various weapons, from heavy machine gun with manually run all the way to the dome with the crew. German and Dutch versions will get a different weapon. The German army currently selects new turret which will equip its armored vehicles (Geschoetzte Fuehtungs und Funktionsfahrweug – GFF). Selected will be installed on the dome of the German Boxer. Weapon selection will depend on the task, and will include heavy 12.7 mm machine gun or automatic grenade launcher 40 mm. German army seeks a remotely controlled weapons station which must have stabilizing weapons and targeting system equipped with a day / night sight and laser rangefinder.
Netherlands Army will equip their boxer remotely controlled weapons station armed with heavy machine guns M2 HB 12.7 mm. As part of the defense system Boxer will also get two pods 76 mm caliber to fire smoke grenades or similar.
We have already mentioned that the current procurement plans German army predict purchase three different versions: an armored personnel carrier, command and ambulance. APC will have a three-man crew (commander, gunner and driver) and be able to translate the infantry assault of seven soldiers plus additional weapons and equipment. The first shipment of serial specimens is expected in September 2009., And the first ten vehicles will immediately rearrange for driver training. Four soldiers will sit on the left and three on the right side of the vehicle. The commander will sit on the left side and will have five periscopes for observation, 360 degrees around the vehicle. The gunner would sit on the right side and manage the weapons station. And the commander and gunner prikaznik get to read a wide range of information about the vehicle and a combat situation.
command vehicle will be followed by the usual three-man crew have two staff officers, one side-officers or non-commissioned officer and a place to another crew member. Besides additional navigation equipment will also command system FIS Heer (F-InfoSysH). First deliveries are planned for 2010.
Specifications Boxer armored vehicle
Version will be medical missionary module with a higher roof and increased capacity in order to better adapt to the application. The crew will consist of a driver, commander / doctors and assistants. The vehicle will be equipped with seven seats or reception room for three stretchers, or a combination of the three seats and room for two stretchers.Delivery of the first Boxer in the ambulance version is planned for 2010. It is interesting that the production version of this split between the company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (52 cars) and Rheinmetall Landsysteme (20).
According to the original plans Netherlands Army should get five different versions of the Boxer: vehicle repair defects and damage, cargo, command, medical to engineering and vehicle. Plans for the development and procurement of vehicles for repair of defects and damage over time have been canceled in order to reduce procurement costs, although there is the possibility to re-activate. The basic version of Boxer for the Dutch army will transport and will have the two-member crew – commander / gunner and driver. Will get optional navigation system and will be able to carry a load of at least 2.5 tons.
Command vehicle will receive a two-member crew consisting of commander / weapons station operators and drivers.Command component will consist of two officers, one adjutant, and secured a place for another soldier. Will receive all the necessary navigation, communications (VHF / HF radios) and computer equipment designed to control the battlefield and command.
Ambulance will be the same module as the missionary and the German car but will be easier to medical equipment.
Engineering vehicle is actually intended for the carriage of members of engineers. With a crew of three (commander, gunner and driver) will have space for six additional engineers and indoor and outdoor space for equipment. Will receive a remote control weapons station armed with heavy machine gun 12.7 mm.
All the numbers on the vehicles of certain versions must be taken with a grain of salt because the modular principle enables users Boxer that each vehicle refit for another task, provided that the customer buys the appropriate mission modules. Although there is still no confirmation that there are buyers for other versions ARTEC Boxer began their development. Admittedly, most of the new version is still at the level of development studies.
These studies include anti-aircraft version, artillery command vehicle, command vehicle for the battalion level to engineering classic vehicle, self-propelled mortar, self-propelled launcher višecijevni, infantry fighting vehicle, reconnaissance vehicle and explosive ordnance disposal. Command vehicle for the level of battalion would get additional communications equipment and awning at the rear in order to obtain additional working space while the vehicle is stationary. Version samovoznog mortars can be fitted with a dome with two 120 mm mortar (as AMOS) or standard dome with one mortars 81 mm or 120 mm.