AKS-74U: A shortened version of AK-47

Eric Sof

The AKS-74U is a specialized shortened version of the world’s most famous assault rifle. When the Soviets adopted the Kalashnikov 7.62 mm rifle, they abandoned their submachine guns, but in later years realized that they had been a little too hasty and needed a more compact weapon for occupants of vehicles.

Introduction

The AK-74U is a straightforward Kalashnikov rifle. However, it uses the Small Caliber, High Velocity (SCHV) concept first put to a trial by fire by the M16 in Southeast Asia (not just in Vietnam – the British also used them in Borneo). It could be felt like a Personal Defense Weapon (PDW). Those guns can quickly spray bullets in close combat, making them especially useful. The AKS-74U fires a little 5.45mm cartridge, causing the bullet easier to fire and gun control better.

The AKS-74U is a carbine (a mix between rifle and SMG). It was designed for close-range combat. If it were chambered with more powerful rounds, it would over-penetrate. The shorter barrel is for good close-range combat. A longer barrel will slow down the bullet through friction but is essential for gun control.

History

Their first attempt was to shorten the AK-47 rifle, but the automatic fire proved to be almost uncontrollable. At about this time, they adopted a 5.45 mm caliber for a new generation of Kalashnikov rifles and machine guns and shortly afterward set about making a compact model in a new caliber. The result was the AKS-74U, first revealed to the West in 1982 when a specimen was captured in Afghanistan.

AKS-74U submachine gun and M4 Commando
AKS-74U and M4 Commando (Photo: XY Guns)

Design

The AKS-74U retains the basic method of the operation of the familiar AK-47 rifle, using a gas piston and a rotating bolt, but the shortening of the barrel introduced several complications. The 5.45 mm cartridge was designed to be fired in a long-barrelled rifle, and the gas system of the Kalashnikov taps its gas from a position about two-thirds of the way up the barrel.

Since the AKS-74U barrel is so short, all the gas generated in the cartridge would not have time to expend its energy, and there would be a prominent muzzle flame and considerable blast. Therefore, a bulbous muzzle attachment can be seen, which acts as an expansion chamber for the emerging gas and muffles the flash and blast. It also helps to balance the internal pressure so that it is possible to tap off the gas for the gas system closer to the breach than in other weapons.

Skeleton butt

AKS-74U submachine gun has a skeleton butt that is fitted. It folds to the left side of the weapon, reducing the overall length to about 16.5 inches. The magazine is similar to that used with an AK-47 rifle but has strengthening ribs molded into its front edge and is made of a lamination of sheet steel and plastic material. The receiver top cover is hinged to the gas block and lifts to permit stripping the weapon; this differs from all other Kalashnikov designs, in which the top cover lifts off completely.

AKS-74U submachine gun - a shortened AK-47 assault rifle
AKS-74U submachine gun produced by Kalashnikov Concern (Photo: Kalashnikov Concern)

The AKS-74U is an ingenious design but, in many eyes, somewhat over-powerful for the self-defense role for which it is intended. However, it does mean that the design and operation are already familiar to any soldier who knows the AK series of rifles – which was every Soviet soldier – and, unlike submachine guns, it does not require its particular type of ammunition happily firing the standard rifle cartridges.

Spetsnaz

The AKS-74U submachine gun was the weapon of choice for Spetsnaz (Russian Special Forces). It was primarily invented to bridge the tactical deployment gap between a submachine gun and an assault rifle. It was also widely used with airborne infantry, rear-echelon support units, helicopter, and armored vehicle crews because of its length.

Spetsnaz SOBR during the training exercise
Spetsnaz SOBR during the training exercise (Photo: XY)

The AKS-74U submachine gun has been augmented and replaced by various other weapons and the less compact AK-105 carbine in Russian military service. Today, law enforcement commonly uses it; for example, each urban police foot patrol is issued at least one. The AKS-74U has proved a good and reliable service weapon popular among users.

Technical specifications

Manufacturer:Kalashnikov Concern, State Rifle Factory, Izhevsk, Russia
Type:Gas-operated, selective fire
Caliber:5.45 mm
Barrel:7.87 in (200 mm)
Weight:Ca. 6.5 lbs (3 kg)
Magazine capacity:20-, 30-round AK-74, 45-round RPK-74 detachable box magazine, or 60-round casket magazine
Cyclic rate of fire:800 rounds/minute
Effective firing range:300–400 m (330–440 yd)
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